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Christianity and Islam: What American Christians need to know about Muslims

Introductions: Psalm 1 and the Qur’an

Let’s agree right from the start that the Qur’an is not easy to interpret. Christians who try to read it have trouble making sense of it. Here’s a secret (sort of…): Muslims also have a hard time working with the Qur’an.  That’s one of the reasons that Muslims tend to use hadith (short sayings and stories told by Muhammad and his close followers). Hadith are much easier to understand than passages from the Qur’an. (I’ll be talking about hadith more in the future.)

But, of course, the Qur’an is the main written authority in Islam, as Muslims traditionally believe it to be God’s words given exactly to Muhammad. So whenever Muslims gather, there is always at least a reading from the Qur’an.

When we compare religious texts, we need to keep in mind that they do not all appear in the same way, or have the same kinds of contents. As religious works go, the Bible is unique, as it is a collection of many different types of literature: narrative, poetry, law, letters, wise sayings, and so on.  As Christians study the Bible, we should think about how to correctly interpret each kind of biblical literature.

The Qur’an, however, is entirely poetry. It is divided into 114 suras (we might call them “chapters”), and each sura is independent. These facts (and a few others) lead me to conclude that instead of comparing the Qur’an to the Bible as a whole, we are much better off comparing the Qur’an to the book of the Bible to which it is most similar: the book of Psalms.

Psalms is unique in the Bible in that, like the Qur’an, every “chapter” is its own separate work. (Chapters of the other books of the Bible are usually closely connected to each other).  Te individual psalms are very different from each other: there are psalms devoted to praise, thanksgiving, sorrow, wisdom, and even history (see Psalms 104–106!) Likewise, the Qur’an, also written in poetry, has many different subjects, including history, law, advice, and praise for God.

The beginning of Psalms is similar to the start of the Qur’an. Muslims have always recognized that sura 1 is intended to “introduce” the Qur’an (hence its name, “the opening”). Christian scholars through history have been less sure about the reasonfor the placement of Psalm 1; however, most scholars today (including yours truly) now believe that the person who arranged the psalms in the order shown in our Bibles deliberately put Psalm 1 first in order to guide our reading of the rest.

Take a look at sura 1, and Psalm 1.

Sura 1, “The Opening”

  1. In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
  2. Praise be to God, Lord of the Worlds.
  3. The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
  4. Master of the Day of Judgment.
  5. It is You we worship, and upon You we call for help.
  6. Guide us to the straight path.
  7. The path of those You have blessed, not of those against whom there is anger, nor of those who are misguided.

Psalm 1

Blessed is the one
who does not walk in step with the wicked
or stand in the way that sinners take
or sit in the company of mockers,
but whose delight is in the law of the Lord,
and who meditates on his law day and night.
That person is like a tree planted by streams of water,
which yields its fruit in season
and whose leaf does not wither—
whatever they do prospers.

Not so the wicked!
They are like chaff
that the wind blows away.
Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,
nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.

For the Lord watches over the way of the righteous,
but the way of the wicked leads to destruction.

We can see that both of these poems advise us to take the path of other righteous people while avoiding the road of the misguided. The idea of picking the best way forward is important to both the Bible and to the Qur’an. Both books recognize that life is filled with choices, and that we are better off when we choose to follow God’s ways while rejecting the ways of people who do not respect him.

In my view, it’s not a coincidence that these two chapters are so similar. The Qur’an emerged from a group of people who were very familiar with the Bible and who adopted many of the basic ideas of Judaism and Christianity. Much of the Qur’an therefore re-writes the Bible. In an earlier post I wrote about the appearance of Jesus’ mother Mary in the Qur’an, and there are many, many other parallels.

Some Christians may be surprised to see that Psalm 1 has more about the wicked and their fate than does sura 1. In fact, the Bible as a whole actually contains more about judgment, punishment, and so on than does the Qur’an. The problem is that the few “negative” verses in the Qur’an (about 1 percent of the total) tend to get quoted a lot by those who want to prove that Islam is a religion of violence.  Of course the Qur’an does teach that God gets angry at those who disobey him.  But the main message of the Qur’an as a whole is positive: people should look to God for guidance. The Qur’an teaches that God wants people to be successful and that in his grace and mercy he will help us to achieve success.

Is “success” on earth important to Christianity?  Personally, I’m not sure: some Christians teach that God wants us all to be rich and successful, while others argue that we really should be much more interested in what happens to us after we die.  But we cannot deny that much of the Bible, like Psalm 1, teaches that we will have success on earth if we follow the words of our Holy Book.

The message of the Qur’an is the same, only more direct.  As the first sura suggests, the Qur’an is about guidance, about choosing the right path for success. And this is, in fact, the way most Muslims think of Islam: when we take God’s path, we will enjoy fulfillment and peace.

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5 comments on “Introductions: Psalm 1 and the Qur’an

  1. Naved Jafri
    May 6, 2017

    I agree with most of the analysis, but must disagree with the statement that “Muslims have a hard time working with the Quran”. Most native Arabic speakers can understand it, although some of the nuances require knowledge of the context/situation at the time of revelation. There are numerous well respected interpretations and commentaries on the Quran called “Tafsir” that help explain and give historical perspective to the events that were occurring at the time of revelation–thus the proper context. Until recently, English translations of the Quran were not written in a contemporary English style and tended to give a verbatim translation. As Arabic Sentence structure is quite different from English, this often led to confusing, hard to understand verses. Newer translations in contemporary language with a more paragraph by paragraph structure are much easier to read and understand for English speakers, Muslim or Christian. You are correct that Hadith are very important in Islam, but Muslims believe that Quran is the literal, unchanged word of God, and therefore it is a command in end Quran itself to “ponder and reflect” on its verses.

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    • John Herbst
      May 6, 2017

      Thanks, Naved. My comment was not as artful as it could have been. I appreciate this insight that you offer as someone who reads the Qur’an seriously. My main point here is that the Qur’an is mostly poetry, which requires readers to “ponder and reflect.” So it may be useful for Christians to compare the Qur’an to the book of Psalms, especially since, in my opinion, “The Opening” is remarkably similar to Psalm 1.

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  2. Ehab Shawky
    March 11, 2018

    I really enjoyed reading this. Good insights. Surely understanding the Qur’an needs a lot of deep pondering and contemplation. This is what it says: Verily We have revealed to you a heavy word…
    It also says: don’t they ponder over the Qur’an or are their hearts sealed…
    Among many other verses implying the same meanings.
    Nicely written. Good job.

    Like

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This entry was posted on March 14, 2017 by .
The Text in Context

Helping modern readers engage with ancient biblical texts

Mark Biddle

Mostly on the Bible

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